Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica, Vol 15, No 4 (2019)

Factor Analysis of the constraints that female entrepreneurs face in South East Nigeria.

Ernest S Etim, Chux Gervase Iwu


The purpose of this study was to investigate the constraints that women entrepreneurs in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria face as well as ascertain the institutional framework that enhance or hinder women entrepreneurship development.  A positivist philosophy and a quantitative research design were instituted to determine the degree of the constraints to the development of female-owned SMEs. The instrument for data collection was a semi-structured questionnaire tested for reliability and administered to the participants. The primary data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 25, which produced a set of descriptive and inferential statistics. Factor analyses show good reliabilities and internal consistencies (ranging from 0.60 to 0.80) for the instrument in relation to the sample. The findings indicate that female entrepreneurs are subjected to economic, administrative, legal, social, and structural constraints (varying in proportions) typical of women in other developing economies. These impact negatively on daily business operations. The study presents new insights into the constraints experienced by female-owned SMEs and therefore enhances the knowledge base for academics, financial institutions, governments and other stakeholders interested in the advancement of women entrepreneurship in this part of Nigeria.


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