Acta Universitatis Danubius. Juridica, Vol 15, No 3 (2019)


The Synergy of the Strategy and the Targets on Water and Sanitation

 

Mandita Cristea[1]

 

Abstract: The integration of sustainable development objectives in national development strategies and regulations to achieve Agenda of the year 2030, are the necessary means to the effective implementation of the 17 targets in a balanced way.In this paper, we have summarized the analysis of the Strategy for water supply and sanitation for 2014-2028 and to the National Development Strategy “Moldova-2030” in view of the integration of the Objective of Sustainable Development, no. 6 – “clean Water and sanitation”, the implementation of which depends on: the reduction of poverty, the ensuring of a healthy diet, the decrease in the rate of mortality and ill-health, access to energy resources and economic growth, adequate housing, sustainable communities. The research is based on the reports, the guidelines, the findings and recommendations developed in the framework of the project “Nationalization of the Agenda and the Sustainable Development of the Republic of Moldova”, a continuing study and analysis of the Strategy for water supply and sanitation National Strategy “Moldova, 2030” in order to identify the achievement of the synergies Target for the Development of the long-Lasting. 6, with the other goals and targets of the global. The methods of empirical analysis to reveal aspects of the blurry of a sustainable solution to the problems, while the criticism of the conclusions drawn can be used and further developed in future studies as a reference concept on the development of sectoral policies, strategies and plans of action.

Keywords: strategy; water and sanitation; global objectives; synergy

 

1. Introduction

The economic strategy is the one that sets out “the objectives and planning the course of actions to be taken both at the micro and at the macro-level” (Dictionary of the Romanian language).

In order to improve the national level of the sector of water supply, sewage and wastewater treatment plants, the main instrument is the Strategy by which the Government will choose the best method for the achievement of the objectives laid down by this identification of the problems and the solutions to address them, the planning and prioritization of actions.

Therefore, strategic planning is an essential element in the integration of it and management, and includes the evaluation and analysis of the situation, the implementation of the objectives and of the control actions, identification of sources of financing, and examination of governmental institutions responsible for, and cerlorlalți actors that are involved in the entire process of developing, managing, monitoring and control.

The development of a document which is to be set up at the national level, the objectives and the planning of activities needs to be based on a concept that makes sense which is to include the following: the institutions and the authorities of the state should be involved as decision-makers, institutions, organizations, associations and non-governmental organizations, representatives of civil society, the beneficiaries of the services and the way in which resources, human and financial resources; mechanisms for monitoring and supervision; identify the problems regarding the decision-makers at different levels, and the establishment of clear the specific of responsibilities and skills.

Therefore, we can say that the strategy in the field of water supply, sewage system and wastewater treatment plant involves the operation of the public domain for the benefit of the citizens, the establishment of the vision of the institution of the creator in order to achieve the objectives set by this method for the implementation of actions, efficient allocation of human and financial resources, increasing their performance and competitiveness, through the establishment of key performance indicators.

Management of the strategic, has become the new “religion” for the public administrations in the planning and management of public services in the long term, the efficient use of resources, improved performance, the realization of the rights of man.

The strength of a strategy lies in the fact that it recognizes the separation of powers between the institutions of the public, giving the opportunity to the government to create the necessary leverage in order to develop and improve the services of water supply, sanitation and wastewater treatment through the decentralization and strengthening the capacity of local authorities and other institutions involved in this process, including civil society and companies business.

Anthropogenic sustainability and development interference with the resources out of the water, including the mandatory measures that the government and local government to ensure access to safe drinking water and sanitation to the citizens, public services are interdependent, which requires coordination at the national level.

The correlation of the strategies, programmes and action plans relating to area of water is particularly important in view of the fact that, at the national level, he has produced a number of documents, the vision and the understanding of the development shall be uniform and homogeneous, tend towards the same result: the respect of human rights relating to life and health, and the effective and efficient management of natural resources, protection of the environment and of biodiversity, and to have the success you desire, and not be doomed to failure from the start.

Thus, the Strategy of water supply and sanitation project (2014-2028) you need to be in line with the Objectives of the global, as well as with the other programs in the field of management of water should be based on the harmonization of national policies to be developed on the basis of the statistical data that at the moment we are a bit imprecise and may lead to the planning, programmes and budgeting all wrong.

More planning and strategies in the same sector as the water supply, sewerage, and wastewater treatment plants are, at first sight of the same vision and the same goal “to improve the quality of life,” recipient of the citizen, but you have the general and specific objectives, the various time-limits and procedures for monitoring the implementation of the different priorities and different actions, which, once met, did not lead to the desired effect.

The study and analysis of the Strategy for water supply and sanitation National Strategy “Moldova 2030” aims at identifying the synergy, the Objective of Sustainable Development, 6 (SDG 6), with the other goals and targets-global, as a result of the guidance of the experts in the field, and to civil servants involved in the definition of objectives and targets, and the correlation between them, in order to achieve the desired results.

 

2. The Objectives of the Millennium Development Goals and the Sustainable Development Goals

The Republic of Moldova is one of the few countries in the developing world, through the signing of a partnership agreement with the European Union and the European Atomic Energy community and their member states (the Law no. 112, 2014), we are committed to respect the principles of democracy, human rights, economic development, and the principles of sustainable development into all areas of life.

Starting with the Millennium Declaration, which was adopted in 2000 at the Millennium Summit by the member states of the UN voted unanimously in favor of the 8 “Millennium Development Goals”:

-   the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger;

-   the achievement of universal access to secondary education;

-   he promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women;

-   the reduction of child mortality;

-   to improve the health of mothers;

-   the fight against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria;

-   to ensure a sustainable environment;

-   the creation of a global partnership for development;

the objectives for which the deadline for achievement of the year 2015, and continuing with the 17 Sustainable Development Goals contained in the Agenda for the year 2030, the overall objectives, which take the place of the world, and for which the deadline is 2030, and the government of the Republic of Moldova started a comprehensive process of implementation through the development of strategies, programmes and plans of action.

Taking into account the period of 15 years to life for the fulfillment of the Agenda of the year 2030, out of the 17 goals and 169 targets of the proposed strategic planning is an essential element in the training of management which includes the evaluation and analysis of the situation, the implementation of the objectives and of the control actions, identification of sources of financing, and examination of governmental institutions responsible for, and cerlorlalți actors that are involved in the entire process of developing, managing, monitoring and control.

All of the sustainable development goals related to health, education, climate change, energy, the environment, nutrition, etc.the. they depend on the realization of the goal no. 6 – “clean water and sanitation”.

The world stage is “universal access to safe and clean water, a proper system of sewerage, for the realization of the human right to water and sanitation”.

The purpose is to eliminate the inequities, the protection and rational use of water resources, adequate management.

The general objectives that have to be implemented by the year 2030 shall be:

-   to ensure access to safe and clean water for everybody;

-   providing access to sanitation to stop the bowels to open good hygiene, giving special attention to the needs of women, children and vulnerable groups;

-   the reduction of pollution, acquisition and treatment, the development of recycling and re-use;

-   the efficiency of the rational use of water in all sectors of activity, in order to prevent the deficiency of water;

-   the management of collective water resources, including through cross-border cooperation;

-   the protection and restoration of ecosystems is necessary (the mountains, the forests, wetlands, rivers, lakes, etc.);

-   the expansion of cooperation and support to developing countries for the achievement of the objective;

-   to support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving the management of water and wastewater.

 

3. The Strategy for Water Supply and Sanitation 2014-2028

Through a “Strategy of water supply and sanitation project for the period of 2014 – 2028”, approved by Government Decision nr. 199 of 20 March 2014, recognised the legal loopholes, the inefficiency of the definition, the duplication of the tasks of the institutions involved in the development of the sector of water supply, sewage and wastewater treatment plants, they should be mentioned and clarified.

So, even though it is a very important document at the national level, which, as I said, it's based on, the guidelines of the action plan, to analyze, and does not differentiate between the decision-makers for the implementation, it comes down to a list of some of the institutions and the central and local public authorities, and a description of the general goals of them.

The vision of the strategy may be considered as being within the overall development plan and prioritization of actions.

The aim is to present the way forward in the medium term and the long term development of services in the field of water supply, and for ensuring the human right to water.

For the realization of the concept, with the overall aim of the strategy is “to ensure a gradual access to safe water and adequate sanitation to all villages, and the population of the Republic of Moldova, thus contributing to the improvement of the health, dignity, and quality of life and economic development of the country”.

The specific objectives for the achievement of the strategy are: the decentralization of the public services of water supply and sewerage systems; expansion of the centralized systems of water supply and sanitation, and increased access of the population to these services; and the promotion of the principles of a market economy and attracting private capital.

The action plan on the assessment of the situation at the time of the initiation of the strategy, and to identify the problems, set the direction of progress, some of which have already been carried out. Thus, to achieve the objective of decentralization of public services has been adopted, the National Strategy for Decentralization and the Concept of Regionalization, we have expanded the responsibilities of the National Agency for Energy Regulation with a regulatory power in the sphere of the public service of supply with water and sewerage services, as well as a number of changes to the legislation.

The institutional framework established (Ministry of Environment), Ministry of Agriculture, Regional Development, and the Environment; (Ministry of Health) Ministry of Health, Labour and Social welfare; (the Ministry of Construction and Regional Development), the Ministry of the Economy and Infrastructure, the Ministry of Finance, the National Agency for Energy Regulation; the local public Authorities of level I and II; the Agency “Apele Moldovei”, the Agency for Geology and Mineral Resources; State Environmental Inspectorate, the Agency for Consumer Protection, the Association “Moldova apa-Canal”; the National Bureau of Statistics, the Association of the consumers of the water.

The legislature referred to: the Act no. 436-XVI of 2006 on local public administration; Law no.1402-XV as of 2002, the services of public utilities; Law no. 272-XIV of may 1999 with regard to drinking water, the Law of the waters no. 272 in 2011, the Act no.10-the law of 2009 on state supervision of public health, the Law nr. 303 2013 the public service of water supply and sewage disposal; the Decision of the Government. 662 in 2007 “on approval of the Strategy on water supply and sanitation of localities of the Republic of Moldova”; Government Decision nr. 934 of 2007 “on the establishment of the automated information system “state Register of natural mineral water, potable and non-alcoholic beverages in bottles”“; resolution of the Government no. 950 2013 “on approval of the Regulation on the requirements for the collection, treatment and discharge of waste water into the sewer system and/or into water bodies for urban and rural areas”; agreements and partnerships that are relevant to the sector of water supply and sanitation: the Espoo Convention, the Helsinki Convention on the protection and use of transboundary watercourses and international lakes and its Protocol on Water and Health in the context of the convention, the Convention on CIPFD, and bilateral agreements with Ukraine and Romania.

The text of the Strategy is the fact that it was developed and based on a number of documents to be adopted at the national level, such as: what are the Objectives of the Millennium Development goals; the Concept of the environmental policy, which was approved by the Parliament Decision nr.A total of 605 of the November 2, 2001; the National Program for assurance of ecological security for 2007-2015, approved by the Decree of the Government no. 304 of 17 march 2007, the national Strategy for regional development for 2013-2015, which was approved by the Government Decision nr.685 dated 4 September 2013, the Indicators and target deadlines for the implementation of the Protocol of Water and Health, approved by the joint Order of the minister of health and minister of environment no.17/115, 2010.

 

4. Water and Sanitation in Terms of the National Development Strategy “Moldova-2030”, A Document that is Essential in the Development of Sector Strategies

At the global level is also analysed in the literature, the link between the goals and targets of the global and the integration of the sectoral programs, in order to develop coherent actions.

Even though in the '80's, the programs for the development of the water and sanitation sector recorded good progress, with the first referring to the articulation with other development goals dates back to 1981, when, together with the extension of the policy of the environmental protection the International Agency of the United States (USAID) to analyse the consequences of these programs, the action plans relating to health, education, gender equality, etc.the. by giving priority to the objective of the WASH (Water and Sanitation for Halth), the acronym in use since 1988, the program included “Water and Sanitation for Health”, and since 2001 it has been used by all the organizations involved in the process.

The other strong link between the overall objectives, it is represented by the connection between the water-energy-food, as defined by the United Nations Food and Agriculture organization (FAO), “The Water-Energy-Food Nexus” (a connection between the security of water, energy and food).

Kirsten Halsnaes and Amit Garg (2006) draws on the work of “Sustainable development, energy and climate change,” a general framework through which energy and climate can be considered at the same time, in the light of sectoral policies.

By way of analogy, we can use the concept for its association with the targets of the strategies, and the integration of the target number 6 relating to the provision of access to safe water and sanitation in the plans and policies of the Republic of Moldova.

The National Development strategy “Moldova, 2030” it is at this point in the planning stage of the bill, even though this would have to be reviewed and approved, taking into account that on the basis of its review, and the documentation of the development of the sector, the changes that they need time for preparation, so that the Agenda for the year 2030 can be implemented in the future.

The contents of the memo with the concept of the National Development Strategy “Moldova 2030”, conducted on the basis of the “Report of the mid-term evaluation of the National Development Strategy” (the Independent Analytical Center “Expert-Grup”, .2017), reference is made to the fact that, “the accurate assessment of the impact of these papers might not be able to take the conclusions of the very best. None of the strategies whose central purpose has been to contribute to the development of the national has not had the expected impact. In good light, these failures can be attributed to the quality of the planning documents in their own right. Among the weaknesses, which are typical of the documents of strategic planning, developed over the course of the last 25 years, the following three are especially important: excessive focus on the phenomenon of economic growth, the setting of arbitrary priorities to the development, the quality of the limited data and the indicators.

In particular, the development strategies have not managed to integrate themselves into the core of the administrative processes; the role of the uncertainty assigned to the national development strategies within the overall framework of the policy has led to a poor connection between the policies of the national, regional, and local governments; scarcity of financial resources due to the same lack of correlation between the documents of strategic planning and the components of the national public budget, quality, and sufficiency of human resources in the public sector – the continued influx of professionals led to the loss of the links between institutions, and planning documents; if it is inadequate or even the absence of the constant monitoring and evaluation of the staff. The planning documents that target the time-scales of long and covers a couple of election cycles inevitably lose their relevance with the realization of the new realities of development, and with the change of government. The revival of them is to update the provisions of the/ of priorities, and adjust to new risks and opportunities”.

As of July 25, 2016, by the Decision of the Government no. 9 to 12 has been established the National Coordination Council for Sustainable Development, and has approved the Rules of organization and operation of the system by which they are established, and the duties of the Board relating to the determination, co-ordination and monitoring of the process of adaptation and implementation of the overall goals in the Republic of Moldova, as well as to make sure that all the strategies of the different business areas at the national level and the regional level are in synergy, in order to produce the expected effect.

However, under the new Strategy, monitoring and control the progress of the implementation of the objectives assigned to the Chancery of State, the skills and responsibilities are assigned to the National Coordination Council for Sustainable Development, the role of the Council is the only validation of the Reports, because it is such a incurrent of the action.

With regard to the adjustment for the 17 global goals at the national level, unlike the strategies of the countries of the European Union, a new National Strategy, replacing them with the 10 dimensions of the breakthrough, while acknowledging that they are going to compensate for it in some very different objectives overall, the concept developed by the European Union for the measurement of quality of life. They are the following:

-   income level;

-   living conditions;

-   working conditions;

-   the level of education;

-   health;

-   the social;

-   the use of time;

-   quality of governance;

-   the safety and security of the public and

-   the quality of the environment.

For the adaptation of the sustainable development goals, adjusting them to the conditions of the socio-economic development of the Republic of Moldova and the implementation of their policy and strategy have been set up sectoral working groups for the review and the proposal of specific objectives, priority actions and the expected results related to each of the dimensions.

The same partner for the analysis and the implementation, the Independent Analytical Center “Expert-Grup” (2017), to be examined, and in the form of a report on the findings of the research relating to the adaptation Agenda and the 2030 framework on the Agenda of the National Policy and targets the overall objectives, as well as the correlation of these with the commitments undertaken through the Association Agreement, and to finalize the recommendations and guidelines be followed.

In the framework of the program “the Nationalization of the Agenda and the Sustainable Development of the Republic of Moldova”, in research policy, the experts had drawn up the “guidelines for the nationalization of the objectives of sustainable development”, in order to support the moldovan authorities in the development of the strategies.

However, the proposals and recommendations relating to the synergy between sustainable development goals and targets on water and sanitation is not reflected in the national strategy.

The association of the ODD 6 with the specific objectives proposed by the Strategy is poorly represented, the latter being only to the extent relating to the codițiile standard of living, the target is the same as the global version 6.2 “By 2030, achieve access to safe sanitation and appropriate hygiene and a level playing field for all and the elimination of open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations,” with an achievement rate of 40%, as well as the target of 6.3 is merely referred to in the measure for the ensuring of the fundamental human right to a healthy environment and a safe, as having a potential impact. For this specific goal states that “By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating waste disposal and reducing to a minimum the use of chemicals and hazardous materials, înjumătățind the proportion of untreated wastewater, and boosting recycling and re-use the safe at the global level”.

 

5. Discussion

The Sustainable Development Goal no. 6 “Clean water and sanitation” comprises eight specific, universally valid global objectives, which should be included in national strategies by national governments.

The eight targets that include the full path to the water, the ocrotitirea, and the restoration of ecosystems, the aquifer (the target of 6.6 “By 2030, protect and restore the ecosystems connected to water, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes”), achievable, due to the reduction of pollution through treatment and re-use of waste water and disposal of waste (target to 6.3 “Up to the year 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating waste disposal and reducing to a minimum the use of chemicals and hazardous materials, înjumătățind the proportion of untreated wastewater, and increasing substantially the re-use and recycling safe globally”), as well as ensuring access for all to adequate sanitation (target is 6.2 “By 2030, achieve access to safe sanitation and appropriate hygiene and a level playing field for all and the elimination of open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations”), up to the rational management for the conservation of the natural resources of water and the reduction of losses (target of 6.4 “Up to the year 2030, the growth of sunstanțială the efficiency of water use in all sectors and to ensure a sustainable process of abstraction and supply of drinking water, in order to cope with the scarcity of water, and a substantial reduction in the number of people who are suffering from shortage of water”); also encompassing the shares of common cross-border management of the integrated (the target of 6.5 “By 2030, the implementation of the integrated management of water resources at all levels, including, where appropriate, through cross-border cooperation”) and the actions are interdependent, which leads to the provision of safe and clean drinking water (target is 6.1 “By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe drinking water, affordable and accessible to everyone.”).

But, most importantly, all of this is made possible through the “extension of international co-operation and support for the strengthening of the capacity data of the developing countries in the activities and programmes related to water supply and sewerage, including water intake, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and re-use” (target is 6 in.A) by “Supporting and strengthening the participation of local communities in improving the management of water and sanitation” (target is 6 in.B).

The treatment of the overall objectives as an indivisible whole, linked in a symbiosis of the key elements of sustainable development, helping to create the synergies and reduce the risk of the embodiment, in order to produce the effects.

The success of the achievement of the overall objective for water and sanitation depends on the success of other development goals. The human rights to water and sanitation as a prerequisite to the fact that everyone has access to safe water for personal and domestic uses in sufficient quantity and of acceptable quality, which is accessible from the point of view of physical and financial sector.

 

6. Conclusions

By studying the documents of the international community and the eu on sustainable development and sustainability, we can conclude that it is necessary to review the National Development Strategy “Moldova-2030” before it was approved, so as not to repeat the failures of the planning, inconsistent, and inadequate, as it happened with the previous one.

The final form of the National Development Strategy “Moldova-2030”, should be developed from the point of view of sustainable development, the size of the proposed increase in the quality of life, and so become targets for the development of the assigned and/or linked to the goals and targets of the global.

Among the arguments that justify the lack of targets for global goals (the millennium development goals targets, no. 3., no. 5, no. 14, and no. 17 is referred to) is that they are not relevant for the Republic of Moldova, so that they are not to be found in the National Strategy and in sectoral strategies.

With regard to the objectives and targets are referred to as non-important, we'll point out the following:

-   the objective of the long-lasting development. 3. with regard to the provision of a healthy lifestyle and promote well-being for all at all ages and includes a target of 3.3 is intended to limit the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and tropical diseases-neglected and combat hepatitis, the diseases transmitted by water and other communicable diseases. In fact, in this moment, in Moldova there are registered with tropical diseases, and malaria-are either very rare, but we have to take into account the fact that climate change and global warming lead to the spread of diseases like malaria and viruses, West Nile and Zika, from the fact that the phenomena of extreme weather (hurricanes, typhoons, tornadoes, change of the moisture content of the soil and the air, such a long-standing, etc.) are being pushed to the north, creating a hazard to human health and the environment;

-   the objective of the long-lasting development. 5. with regard to the achievement of gender equality and the recognition of the rights of women and girls target 5.3 is aimed at eliminating the practice of child marriage and genital mutilation of women. As in most other european countries, and not only in the Republic of Moldova are citizens of certain ethnic and/or religious organisations or traditional know-how which allow, with the consent of the parents, the union of the juvenile and to “consummate the marriage”;

-   the objective of the long-lasting development. 14 with respect to the conservation and sustainable use of oceans, seas and marine resources. The integration of this objective, it is necessary for the implementation of the international agreements of co-operation and regional management in the Republic of Moldova is a party to the agreement. Among them: “a Plan for the management of the river basin district of the Danube-Prut and the Black Sea,” the opening of negotiations on the draft Agreement “on the corridor for the international shipping on The Baltic Sea – Black Sea – Caspian region”, “Agreement on development of transport of goods towards The Baltic-Black Sea”, the “Joint Operational Programme Black Sea 2007-2013”;

-   the objective of the long-lasting development. 14 with regard to the strengthening of the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. All of the 19 targets that are necessary for the achievement of the 2030 Agenda. The exclusion of the strategies, plans, and guidelines for the sustainable development means “a condemnation of the failure and the failure” of the obligations it has undertaken. The absence of the provisions of the internal budget and external sources of funding, the tehnologizării, and of the trading, and of the “policies and coerențelor institutional”, and the development of partnerships and mechanisms for implementation and follow-up, confirming the fact that the National Development Strategy “Moldova-2030” is a “document of intent”, which does not create any pârgiile necessary for the materialization.

Also, we consider that it is necessary to express that farm, free and clear, and phrases like “fade in” and “to ensure a gradual” access to safe water and sanitation and to provide for the possibility of interpreting it in different ways, so that the planificarile of the actions, and the prioritization of them is doomed to failure.

Thus, from a national planning and clear and specific, sectoral strategies can also be designed as an add-on, detailed, and in harmony with the objectives of the global and the national, as without that they overlap, thus creating the mechanisms for co-ordination and implementation at all levels of government.

 

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Funding: This research received no external funding

Conflicts of Interest: The author does not declare any conflict of interests



[1] PhD Student, Faculty of Law, State University of Moldova, Republic of Moldova, Address: Strada Alexei Mateevici 60, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, Corresponding author: mandita.cristea@gmail.com.

AUDJ, Vol. 15, No. 3/2019, pp. 122-136


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