New Trends in Psychology, Vol 2, No 1 (2020)

Study on the School Inclusion

of the Rhuman Ethnic Students



Gina Anton1



Abstract: Inclusive education involves a permanent process of improving the school institution, with the purpose of exploiting the existing resources, especially of human resources, to support the participation in the education process of all the students within a community. Inclusive education refers to eliminating all barriers to education and ensuring the participation of the vulnerable in terms of exclusion and marginalization. Inclusive education or school involves the idea of reforming the school and society as a whole, in order to respond to the wish, a society for all, that better responds to the needs, potential and aspirations of all children, including those with special educational needs.

Keywords: inclusion; Roma students; educational factors; disabilities; school reform; special programs; socio-economic environment



The situation of the schools with a high percentage of Roma students and implicitly of the Roma communities from which the students come, has concerned in the last years, a large and diverse number of institutional actors, public and private, being constituted structures of representation of the Roma at national and international level. . Not always the approach of these phenomena has been made from a regional or county perspective. The causes of school exclusion and school failure may differ from region to region or from county to county, depending on many educational, social and institutional factors / actors.

Inclusive education is a complex, long-lasting process that requires continuous analysis, change and construction to achieve inclusive policies and practices and to provide the foundation for an inclusive culture. Today’s school must clearly design its goals and forms of support appropriate to accommodate all children, ensure that they meet their educational needs and thus provide the opportunity for the germs of a society based on accessibility, responsible social participation and collaboration.

The educational system in Romania - although it is changing and evolving - still presents elements of discrimination, in the sense that not all children go to school or, when they arrive, do not enjoy all the possible opportunities for maximum development of their potential.

In particular, we are talking about children and young people with CES (disabilities, difficulties and / or disorders). In disadvantaged situations, Roma children or from very poor families, from isolated localities and others can be found. Although programs and projects have been initiated to further open the door to schools for children with special needs and the results are, in most cases, encouraging, the dissemination of results and good practices is not a permanent exercise.

Inclusive education or school involves the idea of reforming the school and society as a whole, in order to respond to the wish, a society for all, that better responds to the needs, potential and aspirations of all children, including those with special educational needs.



An Inclusive School is a Democratic School

It seeks to achieve mutual respect between the members involved and their different modes of experience and life. Inclusive school requires everyone to work together creatively so that each student learns. That’s why a school for all / inclusive is characterized by the fact that:

Diversity is seen as a reality;

Ensures each student access to knowledge, skills training and information;

Ensures individualized learning;

Uses special training and arrangements in collaboration between its members;

Collaborates with families, external agencies and other community members;

Organizes and structures the flexibility of schools;

Has high expectations for the success of all students;

It is constantly being improved;

Build inclusive communities.

Inclusion, as a psychological process of assimilation, can be achieved only within the social inclusion, being a process of incorporation of an individual in the social systems: family, group, class, school, community, society (OECD, 2007). Inclusion differs from inclusion. To integrate a group of disadvantaged children refers to the ability of a group, classes, a school to assimilate new members, who need support to adapt, integrate, socialize (OECD, 2007).

School Inclusion - Conceptual Boundaries

In the context of this complex legislation, the right of school inclusion can be defined by the acceptance by the educational institutions of all children, regardless of sex, ethnic and social belonging, religion, nationality, race or language.

Inclusion in Education Involves the Following:

Equal valuation of all students;

Increasing the degree of student participation in cultural activities, community activities and curriculum development and reducing the exclusion of students from these activities;

Transformation of school culture, policies and practices, so as to respond to the diversity of students in the respective locality;

Reducing barriers to learning;

To perceive the differences between students as resources through which the act of learning can be supported, rather than problems to overcome.

Recognition of the right of each student to education in their own locality;

Improving the condition of schools for the benefit of teachers and students;

Strengthening the role of the school in community development and promotion of values, as well as in enhancing community achievements;

Creating and stimulating mutual support relationships between school and community;

Recognition of the fact that inclusion in education represents a premise of social inclusion.

Inclusive education involves a permanent process of improving the school institution, with the purpose of exploiting the existing resources, especially of human resources, to support the participation in the education process of all the students within a community. Inclusive education refers to removing all barriers to education and ensuring the participation of the vulnerable in terms of exclusion and marginalization (UNESCO, 2000). First of all, this is a strategic approach that aims to facilitate success in learning for all children. The first requirement of inclusive education is to diminish to eliminate all forms of exclusion. It ensures access, participation and school success for all children. Inclusive school develops all the elements necessary for a successful social integration. The inclusive school is open to all students and provides them with the essentials for a successful social integration. Inclusive schools are those open and friendly schools, which have a flexible curriculum and quality teaching practices that promote continuous evaluation and education partnerships (OECD, 2007). As for the choice of terms, I preferred “school inclusion” instead of “school integration” because the term “school integration” is related only to the process of assimilation of students with learning difficulties, while the key aspect of inclusion is the assimilation of students of any kind. difficulties in integrating into the educational process. (Thomas et al., 1998, p. 14).



Underprivileged Environment - Conceptual Boundaries

Poor socio-economic environment: environment from which children belong to disorganized families, with many siblings, with a precarious cultural environment, with low incomes, as well as children living in rural localities located at great distances from significant urban and cultural centers, with reduced access to media or other cultural assets;

Underprivileged urban area: from a socio-economic and cultural perspective, it defines a neighborhood on the outskirts of the city or a certain area within it, characterized by a certain type of urbanism (modest individual dwellings or blocks with low level of comfort, with hygienic conditions. - inadequate sanitation), inhabited by a more or less homogeneous population, with a low educational and professional status, with poor economic conditions;

The present approach considered aspects regarding the school ethos and the inclusive culture, following 20 indicators among the indicators of school inclusion in Annex 3, part of the O.M.E.C.T. no.1540 / 19.07.2007 regarding the prohibition of the school segregation of the Roma children and the approval of the methodology for the prevention and elimination of the school segregation of the Roma children:

1. Are all teachers qualified or in the process of being qualified? What is the percentage of unskilled staff in school staff?

2. What is the repetition rate in the last school year?

3. What is the percentage of the 8th grade graduates who passed the ability exam in the previous school year?

4. What is the participation rate in county and national competitions (including the Olympics)?

5. Does the school appreciate diversity, through its policies and activities, through its exposed materials?

6. Is diversity reflected even in the development of the CDS and the organization of extracurricular activities?

7. Are the representation of children and parents from disadvantaged groups in advisory structures, such as: parent and student councils actively promoted and encouraged?

8. Does the school offer Roma students examples of positive role models, by appointing Roma teachers and / or by regularly inviting Roma citizens to participate in school activities?

9. Do the teaching materials mirror all the ethnicities represented in the school?

10. Do the teachers have access to the equipment provided by the school, necessary for the teaching activity?

11. Have all teachers benefited from training on Roma history and culture?

12. Does the school have books and other educational resources related to the history and culture of various ethnic groups, including the Roma, which can be made available to teachers?

13. Does the school have a school mediator, language speaker / connoisseur of the local community?

14. Does the school have a knowledgeable school counselor in the local community?

15. Are human resources available and available to support teachers and assist students (such as support teachers or classroom assistants) when available?

16. Are Romanian language teachers or nurses who speak Romanian available when needed, to assist teachers and students?

17. Have all teachers received training courses on how to work with students who have a mother tongue other than Romanian?

18. Does the school have a library? How many volumes does this have?

19. Does the school have a sports hall / field set up?

20. Does the school have laboratories and specific equipment? Do students have access to these equipment? Which is no. number of copies per computer?



Conclusions

In 4 school units there is neither space for school counseling nor for remedial education because in these units there is neither a support teacher nor a school counselor.

Students with ESC in these school units do not benefit from the individual support offered by the support teacher.In the other school units, the space made available for personalized work with CES students differs from one school to another, depending on the space left free within a certain time interval: the school library, the computer room, the classroom used and the counselor. psychological.We find the same aspect when it comes to the intimate space that we should offer to the student who needs psychological counseling.

Regarding the time given to the student by the itinerant / support teacher, he / she cannot manage more than one hour a week to work with a student. For the second hour allotted, the support teacher has to take two students to work with them. From the discussions with the support teachers, they say that the methodology of working with the students with CES, foresees to assist them at times to support them in carrying out the activities, but the physical time does not allow them. The norm of a support teacher is 16 hours / week, and the number of students she should work with is between 8-12 students. One support teacher works on average with 20 children with CES.

Another aspect identified in the research was that most children with CES are identified in the first year of school or after the first two years of school, especially Roma children who speak Romanian at home. Being Romanian speakers, and being in the stage of fundamental acquisitions (the preparatory class, the first and the second classes), they fail through the learning activities that capitalize on the concrete experience of the student to acquire the specific competences derived from the general competences. :

1. Receiving oral messages in known communication contexts;

2. Expressing oral messages in various communication situations;

3. Receiving a variety of written messages in communication contexts known;

4. Writing messages in various communication situations. The same situation I have met with children from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds, with parents illiterate or with primary / secondary education, who come from home with a vocabulary Minimal / shabby.

Teachers, teachers say they have a program to follow, and when they find that some students fail to reach the minimum level of end-of-year purchases, they are prompted for evaluation in order to obtain a school and professional guidance certificate. They “cannot afford to waste time” with these children, reasoning that they cannot help but encourage them and work with others who “manage to keep up.” The role of personalized and individual work with the student is attributed to the support teacher.

In Brăila County there are currently two projects in which teachers benefit from training courses to work with children with CES. The DidactForm project - DIDACTIC Frameworks Formed for quality inclusive education, is implemented by the Association “Spiru Haret National Society for Education, Science and Culture” in partnership with the Brăila County School Inspectorate and Vaslui County School Inspectorate. In this project, 150 teachers (educators, teachers and teachers) who teach in schools from disadvantaged backgrounds were trained to work with children with ESC.

The second project in Braila entitled “Trained Teachers - Motivated Teachers” is a project implemented by the Romanian Angel Appeal Foundation (RAA), in partnership with the Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy in Romania (APCCR) and the Federation for Rights and Resources for People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (FEDRA). The main objective of the project is the development, through continuous training, of working skills with children with special educational requirements for 400 teachers, 80 people from support staff and 26 members of the management teams from 13 special and mass schools. The 13 schools were selected from 6 counties: Suceava, Botoșani, Prahova, Galați, Brăila and Vaslui, thus covering 3 disadvantaged areas (North-East, South Muntenia and South-East). The project starts from the premise that the diversification and improvement of teaching methods, their adaptation to the level of children’s development and the use of new technologies by teachers in the act of teaching, can increase the chances of including children with ESC in education.

From the county of Brăila, the “Anton Pann” High School of Braila was selected, benefiting from training a number of 30 teachers (all the teachers in the school: educators, teachers and teachers. The project is still in progress, two modules are being developed, following two modules, following that in the next period there will be two more modules.

The counseling service is provided on request, by the school management, with the consent of both parents of the child or legal guardian.Students with CES usually take part in extracurricular activities, sports and arts competitions (drawing, painting, practical skills) obtaining encouraging results.The evolution of the students with ESC is observed more in the group integration and the relationship.

In general, the family is interested in the situation of the child, maintaining contact with the school principal. Very few parents communicate directly with the support teacher to be interested in the child’s development.

15, 58% of Roma students participated in competitions / county / national Olympics

The students participating in county / national school competitions or at the Olympics are usually students who study the Romani language and the history and traditions of the Roma minority.

34.81% participate in E.N.

13% of Roma students are at risk of school dropout

1. Does the school appreciate diversity, through its policies and activities, through its exposed materials?

In most of the schools where the Roma mother tongue is studied, identity elements are found through the exposed tides, there are arranged classes, panels with information on the Roma’s ethnicity: culture, Roma personalities, photos during extracurricular activities, etc. In schools where the Roma language is not studied, there are no such exposed materials that contribute to the self-esteem of the Roma child.

2. Is diversity also reflected in the development of the CDS and the organization of extracurricular activities?

There are no CDȘs in the 17 schools that reflect diversity. Usually the CDs are for completing the chairs of the titular teachers who do not go out all the hours. Even if the rule is for students to choose their option, through the educational offer, they are guided in such a way that they choose what the teachers need, and not what they need. In contrast, this school year, Braila is piloting an intercultural education option in the third and fourth class, within the project “Interculturality at school and at home” implemented by the National Center for Roma Culture - Romano Kher. In this project are involved 8 school units (4 school units in which majority students learn and 4 school units in which most Roma students learn).

In most of the school units there are extracurricular activities from the Roma calendar, such as: April 8 - International Day of the Roma, October 3 - The first certification of the Roma in the Geo-Historic space, February 20 - The day of the Roma dismantling, December 18, etc. Also, the Brăila County School Inspectorate is carrying out a series of projects included in the CAEJ (Calendar of county educational activities) and CAEJ (Calendar of regional educational activities) of the type of contest: February 20 - Intercultural county contest on the history of Roma, From bondage to freedom “, November 16 - The county contest” Tolerance - respect and promotion of cultural diversity “, June 16 - Day of the Roman language.

3. The representation of children and parents from disadvantaged groups in advisory structures, such as: parent and student councils, is actively promoted and encouraged?

In the 17 schools there is representation in the Parents Council. There are students in the Students’ Council in the classroom, as well as in the Advisory Council of the students in the school.

4. Do the teaching materials mirror all the ethnicities represented in the school?

Apart from the school textbooks in the 8 educational establishments in which the Roma mother tongue is studied and the history and traditions of the Roma, there are no teaching materials that mirror the representative ethnicity of the school.

5. Does the school provide Roma students with examples of positive role models, by appointing Roma teachers and / or by regularly inviting Roma citizens to participate in school activities?

In the county of Braila, the “Gala of excellence of the Brazilian Roma” was initiated, reaching the 4th edition, in which people from the Roma ethnic group are promoted, both students with special results, as well as adults who have a remarkable career. By conducting this event, Roma students are stimulated, both in school participation and in the continuation and completion of higher studies. As part of the SOS campaign - Roma children !, in which special places for Roma are promoted in high school and state vocational education, the representatives of the Roma ethnic group move annually to each school, accompanied by high school students or students who honor us to offer them to students of high school successful models.

6. Do the teachers have access to the equipment provided by the school, necessary for the teaching activity?

In general, all schools are equipped with the equipment necessary for the teaching activity. Teachers have access to computers, printer, xerox, video projector.

7 . Have all teachers benefited from training on Roma history and culture?

Annually, in the training offer at C.C.D. Brăila (House of the Teaching Body) has a training course “Communication in the Roma language - Rromanipen educational”, a course dedicated to non-Roma teachers working with Roma students. The course duration is 24 hours. Unfortunately, the course does not have credits, which is why it is not in the interest of the teachers.

Within the project ZEP (Priority Education Area), 20 teachers were trained on the Roma component (Rromanipen educational course) from 4 educational units.

In conclusion, out of the total of 484 tenured teachers in the 17 school units, only 50 teachers attended a training course on the history and culture of the Roma, which represents 10%.

8. Does the school have books and other educational resources related to the history and culture of various ethnic groups, including the Roma, which can be made available to teachers?

In recent years, educational resources regarding the history and culture of the Roma have been realized by specialists from the National Center for Roma Culture - Romano Kher. Unfortunately, they did not reach all the schools where Roma students learn to be made available to teachers working with Roma students. They are distributed only during school competitions.



Bibliography

Guide to working with roman families for the child success of their children Proposal for a transnational methodology for professionals. MEC.

Stan, Liliana (2008). Early education, problems and solutions. Iași: Polirom Publishing House.

www.eurodiaconia.org - office@eurodiaconia.org.

1 PhD student, minority inspector ISJ Braila, Romania, Address: nr. 172. A.I. Cuza, Bldv. Braila, Romania, Tel.: +40239619160; Fax: 40239614060, Corresponding author: antongina2004@yahoo.com.

New Trends in Psychology, Vol. 2, no 1/2020, pp. 7-17

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